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The Military’s $1Billion Aircraft

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Intro

An increase in the demand for state-of-the-art aircraft capabilities has caused costs to rise for military aircraft, resulting in cancelled projects and production cuts. From Northrop Grumman’s B-2 Spirit to Chengdu’s J-20 Black Eagle and Air Force One. In this day and age, there is a great deal of concern over what things cost. As it applies to military aircraft, there is a staggering amount of money involved, whether it’s a fighter, bomber, electronic warfare, or even newer transport aircraft. “You get what you pay for” is often the case for many consumer goods, but nowhere does this saying ring truer than when it comes to spending on armaments. Typically, the military that has the best financial backing will be the one most capable of overwhelming enemies and maintaining the greatest level of power internationally.

Make sure to stick around till the end of the video to find out what kind of aircraft the military has invested in.

The most expensive military aircraft in the world are technologically advanced weapons that are capable of wreaking devastation on nearly any locale on earth. Of course, the majority of the most expensive aircraft vehicles are owned by the United States armed forces.

$2.1BILLION-Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit

The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit is a US Air Force (USAF) heavy-penetration stealth bomber launched in 1989. The aircraft can infiltrate complex and dense air-defense shields, while it is capable of all-altitude attack operations up to 50,000ft. B-2’s original unit cost was $737m, making it the most expensive aircraft ever built. However, due to retrofitting and adjustments in 1997, its overall cost now stands at $2.1bn. It costs $135,000/hr to operate. B-2 has two main defenses to protect it against radar detection, including its costly stealth coating

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known as ‘alternate high-frequency material’ and its continuous curvature design. A total of $60m in general upgrades are carried out on each aircraft every seven years.

B-2 Spirit travels up to 628mph, has a length of 69ft, a width of 172ft, and height of 16ft. It has a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 170,600kg and features four General Electric F118-GE-110 turbofans (non-afterburning) with 17,300lb of thrust. The aircraft has a flight range of 11,100km and a 3,000ft/min climb rate. The two-pilot stealth bomber is able to carry 40,000lb of weapons.

Early ‘flying wings’

The idea of designing a plane as a flying wing, without a definite fuselage, a tail and other protuberances, is an early one in aviation, surfacing before World War I in Germany and the Soviet Union. Towards the end of World War II, Nazi Germany built and tested the Horten Ho 229, a futuristic flying wing aircraft with rudimentary stealth features, to which the B-2 bears a striking resemblance. In the United States, this type of design was pioneered by aircraft designer and industrialist Jack Northrop, whose first flying wing prototype in small scale and powered by propeller engines, took to the skies in 1940.

Northrop’s work culminated in the YB-49, his first jet powered flying wing design, in 1947. Far ahead of its time, the project was held back by technical difficulties and quickly scrapped. However, the work done on the YB-49 was used to kickstart the B-2 program, the company that makes it was founded by Northrop himself and although the planes are decades apart, they have many similarities, including the exact same wingspan.

Two days in the air

B-2 missions have lasted as long as 44 continuous hours, such as one flown in 2001 from Missouri to Afghanistan during operation Enduring

Freedom, which is why there is a flat space behind the cockpit where one of the two pilots can rest, along with facilities to store and heat food, as well as a toilet.

While no B-2 has ever been lost in combat, the plane doesn’t even have defensive weapons, one was destroyed in an accident in 2008, when it crashed shortly after takeoff from Andersen Air Force Base on Guam (the pilots ejected safely). Another B-2 was severely damaged in a fire in 2010 and sustained extensive repairs before coming back into service.

All B-2s are named after a US state (except two, “Spirit of America” and “Spirit of Kitty Hawk”) and are among the most high-maintenance planes in existence, and tens of hours of servicing are needed for each hour of flight. The delicate skin of the plane, which provides additional stealth, must be stored at cool temperature, requiring air-conditioned hangars that contribute to the high operating costs.

The 21 B-2s that were built also had to bear all the costs associated with the program’s research and development, which would have been more evenly spread over a larger number of aircraft. That made their sticker price upwards of $2 billion each, it would have been much more reasonable had they built 132 as originally planned.

Low Observable technology

The B-2 is one of three strategic bombers currently in service in the US Air Force, along with the agile Rockwell B-1 Lancer, which first flew in 1974, and the gargantuan Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, a legendary aircraft from the 1950s that has been constantly updated ever since.

The B-52 first introduced the idea of flying a bomber at very high altitudes, to make it harder for anti-aircraft missiles to reach it, while the B-1 tried the opposite: flying so low and fast that radar would have trouble picking it up. Neither strategy was perfect nor immune to enemy fire, and Cold War tensions were calling for the ultimate

nuclear deterrent: a bomber capable of carrying atomic weapons while being virtually undetectable by enemy air defenses. This dream became a reality in the 1970s with the introduction of stealth, a set of technologies that make an aircraft difficult or impossible to spot for radar.

To do so, the plane includes a range of features, many of them classified, that mask it from view. Radar, an acronym for “radio detection and ranging”, was invented during World War II and works by sending an energy pulse through the air and waiting for it to bounce off objects such as airplanes, and then come back. The intensity and angle of this reflection gives the size and location of the target.

Unlike other aircraft, the B-2’s flying wing design doesn’t have any large vertical shapes, such as a tail, for radar waves to bounce off. In fact, its smooth surface is designed to scatter radar waves completely, so that almost none return to the source, making the plane appear as small as a bird. Ironically, the principles used for this were first exposed by a Russian physicist, Pyotr Ufimtsev, in a 1962 book which the Soviet Union deemed of no national security value, thus clearing it for publication.

A heat signature is a dead giveaway that a plane is in the sky, and the B-2’s designers went to lengths to obfuscate it, even using the same kind of heat-absorbing tiles that protected the Space Shuttle during re-entry, placed near the engine exhaust. An on-board system alerts the crew if the plane is creating contrails, the vapor trails that form when ice crystals coalesce around aircraft exhaust gases, allowing them to change altitude. Finally, the B-2 is very quiet, and can only be heard once it’s passed overhead.

These features, known collectively as low observable technology, are not always in operation, but are activated when the plane needs to become invisible. Among other things, pilots must press a button in the cockpit marked “PEN,” to penetrate enemy defenses. Just like any

combat aircraft, when you’re near the threat you do a whole bunch of things to get ready to penetrate. They won’t tell you the whole procedure, but it’s true, they do stealth up when they come near the target area.

The next generation

Because of the small fleet and its classified technologies, the B-2 is a coveted plane to fly, and only a few stat hundred pilots have ever boarded one. They have a very rigorous selection procedure, but one thing they place great value on is personality and compatibility, you have to be the right kind of person to fly those 40-hour missions with a two-person crew.

It flies like a regular plane, but it has some unique features. When you fly, you’re right up on the front edge, so the perspective is very different and it takes some real skill to refuel and to land.

Outro

Through the years, the plane has received upgrades to its flight systems, communications and weapons. It is still firmly part of the US’s nuclear triad deterrent, along with intercontinental ballistic missiles based on land and aboard submarines.

Its days, however, might be numbered: the B-2’s successor is already in development. Called the B-21 Raider, it’s shrouded in secrecy and expected to debut sometime after 2025. The new plane will take on the same role as the current one, but it will be designed making full use of the technological advancements that have occurred since the B-2 was first conceived, over 40 years ago.

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